Understand everything about the thyroid and thyroid hormones: their influence on the human body and their impact on the athlete's life.
Historical references to what is known to us as the thyroid gland today finds its roots in ancient times and early medical history. You have to go back to 1600 BC, where the Chinese used a burnt sponge and algae to treat enlargement of the thyroid. Traces have also been found in Indian Ayurvedic medicine.
The use of this treatment then evolved over time. There was an epidemic of goiter in the Alps where it was first described as a neck tumor in the 14th century. However, it was only in 1475 that Wang hei anatomically describes the thyroid gland.
In 1656, that Thomas wharton named the thyroid gland, because of its shield shape. In 1811, in Paris iodine was discovered in burnt algae and it was directly speculated that it was the active ingredient that made the treatment of hyperthyroidism effective.
After 10 years, Proust recommends iodine as a treatment and Robert Graves, in the process, published a book on goiter in 1835.
It was in the 19th century that thyroxine (T4) was isolated by Edward Calvin Kendall. CR Harington then synthesized the hormone, followed by T3 which was also isolated and synthesized in turn.
These two hormones have since been constantly improved and made available to the health of everyone. Today, natural thyroid hormones that contain a mixture of T4 and T3 provide effective treatments for various thyroid hormone disorders.
The thyroid hormone is secreted by the butterfly-shaped gland at the base of your neck, the thyroid, which is located in front of the windpipe, and just below the vocal cords or larynx. Although small, the thyroid plays a big role in controlling many of our bodily processes with the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 that it releases, mainly for the regulation of metabolism. You can feel tired most of the time or feel restless, and lose or gain weight, even with an appropriate diet.
Your heart rate and body temperature can be raised and lowered. It controls the speed at which food moves throughout your digestive tract, the breakdown of food and convert it into energy, the rate at which your body burns calories, and how quickly cells regenerate and are replenished. .
Thyroid diseases such as goiter, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, depend on how much or not enough of this hormone is produced.
Thyroid hormone production
The production of thyroid hormones affects all organs and cells in the body. There are two types of hormones released by the thyroid gland: thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). The thyroid gland uses two raw materials in the production of thyroid hormones:
Thyroid cells have a unique specialized function to absorb and use theiodine in its processes. Iodine comes from the food you eat, which is taken up into the bloodstream by the thyroid epithelial cells which contain a sodium-iodide carrier on its outer plasma membrane. Once iodide is trapped, it is then transported into the lumen of the follicle with thyroglobulin.
These come from thyroglobulin, a large structure of glycoprotein synthesized by the epithelial cells of the thyroid gland then secreted into the lumen of the follicle. Tyrosine residues form two groups mono-iodo-tyrosine (MIT) and di-iodo-tyrosine (DIT). Two di-iodized tyrosines when linked form thyroxine, and a particle of MIT and a particle of DIT combined produce tri-iodo-thyronine.
It is essential to have an adequate supply of iodine in order to achieve normal levels of thyroid hormone production. Iodine deficiency would prevent the thyroid from producing thyroid hormones, and could have detrimental effects on your body's growth, metabolism, heart rate, other critical functions, and your overall well-being. Iodide is the first to take place in the synthesis, which is then converted into iodine and, optionally, condensed into tyrosine residues.
The thyroid peroxidase enzyme serves as a catalyst for the iodization of tyrosines on thyroglobulin, and the synthesis of biological agents activates T3 and T4. The reaction with the thyroperoxidase enzyme allows thyroid hormones to build up in the colloid of the follicle and then on the surface of thyroid epithelial cells. These cells ingest the colloid by endocytosis and the vesicles fuse with the endocytosis lysosomes, thereby releasing thyroid hormones.
The thyroid gland cooperates with the pituitary gland which releases TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone. The secretion of TSH causes the thyroid gland to release more, a high TSH level means that there is not enough thyroid and a low TSH means that there is too much. The normally functioning thyroid produces about 80% T4 and about 20% T3.
Triiodothyronine or T3 is one of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland, the other being T4. T3 is identical to T4, with the particularity of having fewer iodine atoms within each molecule. T3 is the most active hormone produced from T4, which is de-iodinated by 3 enzymes de-iodinases.
Triiodothyronine is composed of:
- Type I which is present in the kidneys, the liver, the thyroid and the pituitary gland.
- Type II found in the CNS, pituitary gland, heart vessels and brown adipose tissue.
- Type III present in the placenta, the central nervous system, and a hemangioma.
The effects of T3 on target tissues are more powerful than the effects of T4. Most of the T3s in your blood bind to protein, and those that don't do so are called free T3s. Measuring T3 in your blood can help doctors determine if you have a thyroid problem.
Potential disorders would be hyperthyroidism when the thyroid produces excessive hormones, hypothyroidism when the thyroid glands do not produce normal amounts of thyroid hormones, periodic thyroid-toxic paralysis which results in muscle weakness or nodular goiter toxic when the thyroid gland is malfunctioning and have rounded growths.
Thyroxine or T4 is the pro-hormone produced by the thyroid gland with T3. T4 in the blood also binds to proteins, just like T3, and those that do not and remain unbound are called free T4. It is made up of four iodine molecules attached to its overall molecular structure, which affects almost every process in the human body.
It may be weaker than T3 but it produces significantly higher amounts and has a longer half-life. It is considered to be the pro-hormone since it serves as a reservoir for T3, where T4 is converted into the tissue that your body requires.
Measuring T4 can help diagnose thyroid problems, where symptoms including puffiness, dryness, irritation, swelling, dry skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, weight changes, anxiety, sleep disturbances, fatigue, constipation and irregular periods.
The highs and lows indicated by a T4 test would indicate disorders similar to what doctors may find when performing a T3 test.
Medical uses for thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones are very useful in terms of medical applications. The hormones T3 and T4 are commonly used to treat hypothyroidism, which is a condition caused by the lack of natural production of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is normally caused by Hashimoto's disease, an inadvertent weakening of the thyroid gland by radiation therapy or surgery, or by drugs that reduce thyroid hormone levels.
Hormone therapy for the thyroid is done in the hopes of replicating normal thyroid function. T4, which is pure, and synthetic thyroxine, are the best things to act as a natural thyroid hormone and it works wonders to replace the missing hormone.
Thyroid hormones can be taken orally and the intestines absorb them well. They should not be taken more than once a day because the hormones remain inside our body for a long period of time, moreover they appear at very stable levels when they circulate in the blood.
The ultimate goal of thyroid treatment is to maintain thyroid function at the same rate as for people without thyroid problems. The best time to take the TSH is found when you get up in the morning when you wake up on an empty stomach, since TSH may be more difficult to absorb in the presence of food. The key to a well functioning thyroid is to be consistent in taking the thyroid hormone medication at the same time every day, but be sure to check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medications.
Studies show that patients with hypothyroidism who take thyroid hormones for medical uses get positive changes, which include the following:
- Significantly improved energy levels throughout the day.
- Regulation of mood, general well-being and stimulation of mental functions such as memory conservation and critical thinking.
- A lower level of triglycerides and cholesterol.
- Normalization of growth in children which has been delayed due to the condition. An immediate growth spurt, as if the thyroid is working again when they take adequate doses.
Sports uses of thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones are no strangers to the world of sports. Sports and their vigorous and punitive daily training can exhaust the body, and directly affect the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones come in many forms in this discipline.
Prescription drugs such as pills and tablets to be ingested in powder form.It should also be noted that the level of thyroid hormones determines the speed or slowdown of basic metabolism, this is vital information for all runners. and bodybuilders.
Putting the body in a situation similar to hyperthyroidism will allow the user to burn more calories in the form of heat, a rise in body temperature called thermogenesis.
There is still an ongoing scientific debate about how thyroid hormones are used as a performance boosting supplement, as there is also a correlation that intense training can overtax the thyroid gland over time. time. This can easily go against the grain, given the importance and value that the thyroid gland plays in our everyday lives.
It is a proven fact that running in endurance mode can reduce the production of the thyroid hormone and ultimately the runner or the bodybuilder will have to approach a doctor or a specialized coach.
Thyroid hormones for weight loss
It has previously been concluded that the thyroid plays a vital role between body weight, metabolism, and helping our bodies stay warm, use energy efficiently, and keep our brain, heart, muscles and other organs in check. state to function as they should.
The thyroid hormone regulates metabolism in humans and animals. Metabolism can be measured by the amount of oxygen that is used by our body in a specific period of time. The BMR or basal metabolic rate, is the number obtained when the measurement is taken at rest. BMR was one of the main test indicators for determining whether a patient had an underperforming or hyperperforming thyroid.
T3 also plays an important role in increasing a person's BMR. When thyroid hormones are introduced into the system, they increase the rate of metabolism and can:
- Increase the number of calories needed for normal body processes, even when the body and muscles are passive and at rest.
- Increase the breakdown and use of most macromolecules of nutrients created in the body.
- Increase the amount of energy and oxygen our bodies use.
- Increase the primary energy generation complex in the body, which is the population of ATPase, sodium and potassium.
Given the benefits, thyroid hormones can be taken as a weight loss supplement, especially in the event that it stimulates fatty acid metabolism and breaks down the fat stored in fatty tissue.
Put simply, the T3 thyroid hormone increases the overall basal metabolic rate which digests all food groups more efficiently, unlocks massive energy for the body, and can have a profound and immediate effect in people who are overweight with hypothyroidism diagnosed or not.
Creating an exercise regimen supplemented with regular supplements of thyroid hormones gives a more effective result because the hormone gives the body an abundance of energy that encourages vigorous movement. Unlike artificial stimulants like synephrine or caffeine, supplements of thyroid hormones increase the rate of metabolism, without the effect of stage fright and do not provide a “crash” when the effects dissipate.
It should be noted that the supplement should be taken in moderation and the user should keep in mind not to take too much and go into hyperthyroidism.