All you need to know about testosterone, the male hormone essential to the good vitality of everyone for performance for the athlete.
Testosterone is a type of hormone that is produced in large quantities in men. It contributes to the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as musculature and strength. It is mainly secreted in the testes. Women also secrete it, but in reduced quantities. Most steroids rely on this increase in testosterone levels to produce their anabolic effects.
History of testosterone
In 1849, a German physiologist and zoologist, Arnold adolph berthold, discovered that the functions of the testes are related to the circulation of the blood.
It is known today as being in the family of androgen hormones. Back in 1889, Charles Edouard Brown Sequard, a Harvard Professor, injected a rejuvenating elixir extracted from a pig and a dog from Guinea.
He reported that his energy and feelings have been restored. He also admitted that he has already injected this elixir 10 times. It gave him a lot of energy and he could work standing up for hours on end. This test also showed that the strength of his arm had increased significantly compared to the strength he had before. Unfortunately he had to stop the study after facing the mockery of his colleagues.
Much research has been carried out after that of Séquard in order to discover the true "Elixir of life". A long history is dedicated to this. But in 1939, the Nobel Prize for this study was split between Leopold Ruzicka and Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt. These two winners were the first to discover the process of the synthesis of testosterone from the cholesterol.
In 1958, health experts and doctors began to inject testosterone into sick people. This allowed these patients to regain some weight and strength. In 1967, the International Olympic Committee decided to ban the use of testosterone and other substances that improve performance during competitions.
In 1970, a new version of testosterone called “Undecanoate”Has been produced and can be taken orally.
In 1988, the use of steroids other than for medical use was banned in the United States.
From the year 2000, a standard delivery method was introduced in the United States known as testosterone transdermal gel.
What is testosterone?
Testosterone is a steroid hormone which is found in man as well as in animals. This hormone is produced mainly in the testicles of the men and also found in ovaries of the women but in small amount.
During puberty, the production of testosterone begins to increase significantly, but this production decreases at the age of 30 or 35 years. It is the male sex hormone that is as important to reproduction as it is to sexual development. It is involved in the development of sexual characteristics during puberty, such as worsening of the voice and the appearance of hair on the face as well as on the whole body.
Even testosterone plays a very significant role in determining the production of sperm, distribution of fat, maintenance of muscles strength and red blood cell (RBC) production. The testosterone level in a male determines or affects his mood too.
A drop in the level of testosterone can change the mood, contribute to muscle mass loss, weight gain etc. It is sometimes used for medical purposes. For instance: It is used to cure cardiovascular diseases, cancer and some other medical issues. Even this is injected artificially by the athletes to gain strength and power to perform better.
How Testosterone Works
There are two main mechanisms behind the effect of testosterone in animals and humans. These are – activation of androgen receptor and conversion to estradiol and creation of certain estrogen receptors. Testosterone, once synthesized, started secreting in the blood. Then it is carried to the target cells of the male sexual or reproductive organs.
The majority of this testosterone is transported in a particular plasma protein called SHBG or Globulin Binding of Sex Hormone.
The rest of the testosterone is called free testosterone which can be converted to dihydrotestosterone or DHT. But aromatase could never change it to estradiol. Both testosterone and DHT can join the androgen receptor. DHT or dihydrotestosterone joins this receptor more closely than unbound testosterone.
The DHT or dihydrotestosterone joins with a greater likeness than the unbound testosterone. Once it is bound to the androgen receptor, the testosterone or dihydrotestosterone forms a complex that goes through certain structural changes. Then this complex which is formed moved into the nucleus of the cells. After that it binds to particular nucleotide sequences of DNA that are termed as Hormone response elements.
The binding of these complexes to the elements brings about some big changes when it comes to the transcription of different proteins that are mediated by specific genes. These genes produce androgenic effects on cells.
In humans, the two tissues most affected by Testosterone are the brain and the bones.
LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) are secreted by the pituitary gland. These two hormones regulate the total number of Leydig cells and their secretion of testosterone. The mechanism is quite complicated, but it is very important for the overall growth and development of the human body, especially of the male sex.
Testosterone in medical practice
Testosterone is used widely in medicines to cure many diseases in human. They are quite popular as this is a steroid hormone that is found in both male and female body. There are testosterone injections available which is used by men to treat certain conditions. These are – delayed puberty, any hormonal imbalance or impotence.
In some cases, these injections are also used by women to treat breast cancer that has likely spread to other parts of their body. Injection of testosterone is not recommended in cases of prostate cancer, pregnancy, or advanced heart disease, kidney problems or hepatitis.
Many drugs these days contain testosterone, but these drugs should not be taken without the prior advice of a specialist or the permission of a doctor. Before prescribing testosterone, your doctor should be told if you have a history of heart disease, breast cancer, or diabetes.
Testosterone is injected directly into the muscle.
In order to have an optimal result, it is advisable to give the injection 2 to 4 times a week.
It is also used to maintain the ideal level of testosterone in the body. It contributes to the stimulation of the bone marrow, to the stimulation of the appetite; and also helps in reversing the effects of anemia in a person with this disease.
Testosterone is also used to treat minor depressions as a mono therapy and as an augmentation therapy to treat major depression problems in the middle aged persons who has low testosterone level. Low testosterone is associated with the Alzheimer disease and its development.
Testosterone treatment can improve the health of someone with type 2 diabetes
In 2005, a small trial has been launched to show that a mixed solution of testosterone is used to fight against the potential signs of aging.
In women, testosterone supplements are used to regulate the disorder of sexual desire. Having too low testosterone is not good for the health of both men and women. This is the reason why doctors or medical staff sometimes recommend the use of testosterone.
Use of testosterone in TRT
With TRT (or Testosterone Replacement Therapy), the energy, mood and even libido of men with insufficient testosterone levels are remarkably improved.
So if you have low testosterone, why not have it replaced?
Testosterone Replacement Therapy therefore proves to be an effective way to treat the problems of insufficient testosterone levels.
Signs of too low testosterone
Libido problem, hair loss, depression, irritability, erectile dysfunction, lack of energy, poor sense of well being, decreased muscle mass; these are all signs of insufficient testosterone in the body. The blood test can raise the level of testosterone existing in your body.
This kind of treatment can be done in different ways. You can take it by mouth, gel or injections. The choice depends entirely on the person.
This therapy also increases muscle mass, density of the bone and insulin sensitivity. Even it has been reported that with the help of TRT a significant improvement in mood has been noticed and there is a major boost in the mood of the people.
The use of testosterone in the sports world
Since testosterone has become legend due to its ability to provide extra energy and its power to boost mental stability, many people consider it best to use it in sports.
However, using it during competition is often illegal (doping).
It allows you to acquire muscle power and enormous strength to achieve great performance. The reason is that it is an anabolic steroid that can increase potency and energy in an individual.
In sports, testosterone is considered a magic that can give athletes extra power to perform better. It is ideal for bodybuilding, running, cycling, scoring, high jumps, even for baseball players. All of these sports require so much strength, and the use of testosterone will be the best way to increase that strength.
Few athletes have illegally used testosterone before, but it has become a habit and even a commonplace.
In order to get better results, many weightlifters use testosterone as an anabolic steroid to gain more energy and power during their vigorous workouts. They need to build a strong body with muscle mass and little or no fat.
Testosterone will help them a lot in this case.
The different testosterone esters
There are different testosterone esters. They are actually molecules of Testosterone with a carbon chain.
The carbon chain determines and controls the effectiveness, for example, will it be effective when injected into human blood. A large carbon chain will have more esters and will therefore be less soluble in water.
There are different esters, likeenanthate, cypionate, propionate andwatery. All the testosterone esters, more or less, work in somewhat similar pattern after released in the bloodstream. There is a huge mechanism that plays behind the esters logic. The interesting thing is that the smaller ester chains will weigh lesser than that of the longer ones. This is quite important because the shorter chains of esters come with bigger advantages for making drugs.
Testosterone is undoubtedly one of the most important hormones in a male as well as a female body.
Maybe you are suffering from a little depression? Fatigue after small jobs? This can be caused by insufficient testosterone. So check your testosterone level with your doctor. With real testosterone therapy, you will be able to bring back the mood you had before. Energy and strength will return to you.
Even weightlifters use it to gain more energy and strength for better performance. No doubt, it is an essential hormone in the body.